Yisrael Meir Kagan
Yisrael Meir (HaCohen) Kagan (Dzyatlava, February 6, 1838 - Raduń, September 15, 1933) also known popularly as The Chofetz Chaim was an influential Eastern European rabbi, Halakhist, Kabbalist, and ethicist whose works continue to be widely influential in Jewish life.
Rabbi Kagan was born in Zhetl (Dzyatlava), Hrodno Guberniya, today's Belarus on February 6, 1838, and died in Raduń, Wilno Voivodship, Poland (pop. 250), today's Belarus September 15, 1933. When Kagan was ten years old, his father passed away. His mother moved the family to Vilna in order to continue her son's education. While in Vilna, Kagan became a student of Rabbi Jacob Barit. Kagan's mother later re-married (Poupko) and moved to Raduń. When he was 17, Kagan married the daughter of his step-father, and settled in Raduń.
He served as the town rabbi of Raduń for a short period. He then resigned from this position to set up the yeshiva in Raduń, which eventually became world famous. By all accounts he was a modest and humble man. For a while he had a shop selling household provisions. However, he brought his career as a merchant to an early end. His scrupulous honesty in business prevented the shop from flourishing. As a result, he turned to teaching in order to support himself and his family. From 1864 to 1869 he taught Talmud in Minsk and Washilishok.
In 1869, he organized a Yeshiva in Radun. The Yeshiva was a success and grew to prominence. It later became known as "Yeshivas Chofetz Chaim of Raduń." In addition to spreading Torah through his yeshiva, the Chofetz Chaim was very active in Jewish causes. He traveled extensively to encourage the keeping of the Mitzvot amongst Jews. He became one of the most influential rabbis within Orthodox Judaism during the late 19th and early 20th century, taking a central leadership role in the World Agudath Israel movement in Eastern Europe.
One major American yeshiva named in his honor is the Yeshivas Rabbeinu Yisrael Meir Ha-Kohen centered in Queens, New York, with several branches in the United States and Israel. Many smaller Jewish religious institutions throughout the world also carry his name. The Chofetz Chaim's teachings have inspired some modern Haredi English-speaking American Jews to establish the Chofetz Chaim Heritage Foundation, dedicated to the dissemination of his teachings to Jewish communities around the world. An Orthodox kibbutz in Israel was named in his honor.
- Chafetz Chayim (חָפֵץ חַיִּים "Seeker/Desire [of] Life") Rabbi Kagan's first book, (published in 1873), deals with the Biblical laws of gossip and slander (known in Hebrew as Lashon Hara, meaning "Evil tongue"). | View the online edition in Hebrew here
- Sh'mirat HaLashon ("Guarding [of] the Tongue"), is a comprehensive discussion of the philosophy behind the Jewish concepts of power of speech and guarding one's speech. It also serves as an inspirational work designed to motivate the reader to be vigilant in the ethical usage of his speech and avoidance of others' unethical speech. Published in 1876. | View the online edition in Hebrew here
- Mishna Berura ("Clarified teachings") is a unique commentary, consisting of 6 volumes, on the Orach Chayim section of Rabbi Yosef Karo's comprehensive compilation of practical Jewish Law, the Shulchan Arukh. It combines his own elucidations and differing opinions with those of earlier commentators. [As found in the book by Rabbi Moses M. Yoshor "The Chafetz Chaim" on page 603 the 1st volume was published in 1884; 2nd volume in 1886; 3rd volume in 1891; 4th volume in 1898; 5th volume in 1902; 6th volume in 1907.]
- Beiur Halacha ("Explanation of the Law") is a commentary tangential to the Mishna Berurah. It usually provides complex analysis of the legal rulings of earlier Jewish legal decisors.
- Sha'ar HaTziyyun ("Gate of Distinction") serves primarily to document sources for laws and customs quoted in the Mishnah Berurah, but sometimes serves also to clarify ambiguous legal statements. The name Sha'ar HaTziyyun derives from the phrase sh'arim m'tzuyanim ba'halacha, translated as "gateways distinguished in (or marked in) Jewish Law," referring to the Torah study and scholarship that would distinguish Jewish homes. Rabbi Kagan chose the title as a double entendre, hinting at the distinction of the scholarship referenced in his work, but primarily referring to (as he writes on his title page) the function of Sha'ar HaTziyyun to document (mark) sources.
- Ahavas Chesed - One volume. On the commandment of lending money to the needy.
- Machaneh Yisrael - One volume. On the minimum and manner of observing the Jewish commandments for a soldier in the army.
- Tiferes ha'adom - One volume. On the importance of a Jew having a beard and Pais. (sidelocks)
- Geder Olam - One volume, published in 1890. On the importance of a married Jewish woman covering her hair.
- Nidchei Yisrael - Two volumes, published in 1893.
- Shem Olam - One volume, published in 1893.
- Chomas Hadas - 1 Volume, published in 1905.
- Likutei Halachos - 5 Volumes. The first volume was published in 1900; 2nd volume in 1093; 3rd volume in 1913; 4th volume in 1922. There is a fifth volume called "Hashlamah" or "Completion" which was published in 1925.
- Gibores Ari - 2 volumes, published in 1907.
- Taharas Yisrael - 1 volume, published in 1910.
- Toras Kohanim - 1 volume, published in 1911.
- Asifas Zikainim - 3 volumes, published in 1913.
- Chovas Hashmirah - 1 volume, published in 1915.
- Toras Habayis - 1 volume, published in 1923.
- Zechor Limiriam - 1 volume, published in 1925.
- Beis Yisrael - 1 volume, published in 1925.
- Sefer Hamitzvos Hakatzer - 2 volumes, published in 1931.
- Rabbi Israel Meir Kagan, The Chofetz Chaim (1838-1933)
- Chofetz Chaim Biography
- Guard your speech - practical compendium of The book Chofetz Chaim by Zelig Pliskin, in russian
- The Chofetz Chaim - Reb Yisroel Meir Kagan
- Chofetz Chaim Heritage Foundation
- From the "Artscroll History Series" - Chafetz Chaim - 1 Volume Edition - The life and works of Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan of Radin, By Rabbi Moses M. Yoshor and translated by Charles Wengrov.
- Moses M. Yoshor, Israel Meir haKohen in Jewish Leaders, ed. Leo Jung. P. 462.